Saturday, 23 December 2017

'Fight Club': A Freudian Approach


Id: The most primitive drive, concerned only with fulfilling pleasure. Has sometimes been referred to as the irrational and emotional part of the mind. It is often regarded as being selfish, because it’s concerned only with its own self-satisfaction. Babies and young children are often used as examples because they’re usually driven by the pleasure and instant gratification principles. Key word: want

Ego: Based on the reality principle. The ego is capable of understanding that one’s own desires may vary for people around (reality), and is willing to make this consideration. The ego tries to meet the basic needs of the id but also takes into account the real world. The ego understands that actions have effects, whether positive or negative, and tries to balance out thinking before carrying out decisions/actions. Key word: balance

Superego: Based on moral principles instilled by rearing and moral/ethical restraints placed upon by caregivers. The superego encompasses an individual’s ideals, goals, and conscience as well as society’s. The superego is concerned with what other will think, and stands in opposition to the id. The superego acts to perfect and civilize our behavior. Key words: morals, compromise

According to Freud, a healthy individual will have developed a strongest ego to keep the id and superego in check. If the id becomes too strong, impulses and desires may become overwhelming (resulting in a selfish, inconsiderate individual) and affect interpersonal relationships. However, if the superego is too strong, an individual may feel excessive rigid moral constraints that result in judgmental individuals, thus straining interpersonal relationships as well.

Re-posted from: houseofmind.tumblr

Friday, 22 December 2017

Key Terminology to include in Unit 11 Film Studies


In your written work for Unit 11 Film Studies make sure that you use the required terms at all times. The more language you use, the more understanding you will demonstrate.

Jacques Lacan Talks About Psychoanalysis with Panache (1973)

Both psychoanalysis and psychotherapy act only through words. Yet they are in conflict. How so? There we have the question posed to psychoanalyst, psychiatrist, and world-famous public intellectual Jacques Lacan in the video above, a clip from a scripted quasi-interview called Television whose answers play like his famous lectures. Watch it, or watch our previously featured video of Lacan giving a talk, and you’ll experience one quality that made him world-famous. Few others could combine such high-flown subject matter with such theatrically emphatic oratorical ability — an ability you can sense even if you don’t understand French. Fortunately, subtitles have been provided, offering Anglophones a chance to understand what connections the man saw between the unconscious, language, Freud, sexual relations, and comedy.
“There are, insofar as the unconscious is implicated, two sides presented by the structure, the structure which is language,” Lacan begins. “The side of meaning, the first side, the side we would identify as that of analysis, which pours out a flood of meaning to float the sexual boat.” These remarks come pre-written in the script of Television, something between a conversation and a play that grew out of Jacques-Alain Miller’s failed attempt to film a traditional interview of the psychoanalytic luminary. “After every cut, when it was time to start up again, Lacan shifted a bit in his discourse,” Miller wrote in Microscopia: An Introduction to the Reading of Television. “Each time he gave an additional twist to his reflections which were unfolding there, under the spotlights, thwarting any chance of bridge-building. We stopped after two hours; I gave him in writing a list of questions; and he wrote [Television] in about two weeks’ time. I saw him every evening and he gave me the day’s manuscript pages; then he read or acted out — with a few improvised variations — the written text. He made a spring-board of this false start.”


'Fight Club': Psychoanalytical Perspectives


This paper (click on image) will outline and describe the main aspects of psychoanalytical film theory as well as provide relevant examples through Fincher's (1998) adaptation of Chuck Palahniuk's 'Fight Club'.

Issues of spectatorship and identification will be addressed in accordance with the filmic apparatus theory as well through acknowledging Lacanian psychoanalysis as an extension of Freud's original theories.

Thursday, 21 December 2017

Freudian Psychoanalysis


Monday, 23 October 2017

New Wave Timeline 1960’s

1960
  • Federico Fellini's La dolce vita, Michelangelo Antonioni's L'avventura, and Luchino Visconti's Rocco and His Brothers spearhead the European art cinema's modern turn.
  • Breathless, Jean-Luc Godard's debut feature
  • Karel Reisz's Saturday Night and Sunday Morning, is one of a cycle of British "Kitchen Sink" films dealing with everyday working-class life.
  • Alfred Hitchcock's Psycho and Michael Powell's Peeping Tom break new ground for representations of violence and criminal pathology.
  • First ruby laser is built by Theodore Maiman.
  • First successful hologram is produced.
  • EG&G develops an extreme depth underwater camera for U.S. Navy.

1960s
  • American drive-in theatre attendance peaks, then begins to decline as a new exhibition trend makes its appearance in the latter half of the decade: the shopping mall multiplex.
  • Cinema, youth, and political cultures meet to produce several "new waves" around the world, most notably in Brazil, Britain, Czechoslovakia, France, Hungary, Italy, Japan, Latin America, Poland, and Yugoslavia.
  • Commercial colour film is perfected.
1961
  • Eastman Kodak introduces faster Kodachrome II colour film.
  • Alain Resnais's Last Year at Marienbad, is a touchstone of reflexive, cerebral art cinema.
  • Chronicle of a Summer by Jean Rouch and Edgar Morin, an experiment in collaborative ethnography and cinéma verité techniques.
  • New York premiere of John Cassavetes's Shadows, a gritty, improvisational film exploring the theme of "passing for white" against the backdrop of white racism.
  • In Hong Kong, the Shaw Brothers (Shaoshi) builds Movietown, a 46-acre complex of studios, sets, laboratory facilities, and dormitories.
  • Notable films include Blake Edwards's Breakfast at Tiffany’s and Robert Wise and Jerome Robbins’s West Side Story.
  • Also in History: First manned space flight.

1962
  • Terence Young's Dr. No, stars Sean Connery as Cold War superspy James Bond.
  • Glauber Rocha's Barravento, is a foundation work for Brazil's Cinema Nôvo movement.
  • New York Filmmaker's Co-op is organized by Jonas Mekas to support the production, distribution, and exhibition of experimental and avant-garde film.
  • After a decade as Hollywood's reigning starlet, Marilyn Monroe dies of a drug overdose.
  • David Lean’s Lawrence of Arabia stars Peter O’Toole and Omar Sharif.
1962-64
  • Stan Brakhage's Dog Star Man, emblematic of a cycle of lyric films aiming to record the act of seeing, the flow of imagination, and the sensation of emotion.

1962-69
  • The major Hollywood studios are bought by and become subsidiaries of American conglomerates.
1963
  • The film director as superstar: Federico Fellini's
  •  Senegalese writer/director Ousmane Sembene's Borom Sarret is the first indigenous black African film.
  • William Asher's Beach Party, is the first in a series of teen-oriented beach films starring Frankie Avalon and Annette Funicello.
  • Foundation of the Swedish Film Institute, revolutionary in its system of awards to quality films.
  • Alfred Hitchock’s The Birds
  • President Kennedy is shot to death in Dallas by a sniper, Lee Harvey Oswald.
  • Also in History: Racial clashes, civil rights demonstrations, mass march in Washington
  • Civil Right Demonstration, Birmingham by Charles Moore
  • 126 Cartridge / Instamatic Cameras are introduced.
  • Polaroid introduces instant color film.
1964
  • Police arrest theatre owners on obscenity charges in Los Angeles and New York City for screening Jack Smith's Flaming Creatures and Kenneth Anger's Scorpio Rising, two scandalous works of the American underground.
  • Popular films: Robert Stevenson’s Mary Poppins, George Cukor’s My Fair Lady, Blake Edwards’s The Pink Panther.
1965
  • Jean-Luc Godard's Alphaville, is a stylised science-fiction adventure set in the future and shot entirely on location in Paris.
  • Introduction of Super 8, a new amateur format.
  • David Lean’s Doctor Zhivago
  • Robert Wise’s The Sound of Music. 

1965-73
  •  Also in History: Vietnam War. 
1966
  • Michelangelo Antonioni's Blow-Up, emblematic of pop art cinema and of "Swinging London". 
  • Gillo Pontecorvo's The Battle of Algiers relocates neorealism in Third World struggles.
  • Andy Warhol's Chelsea Girls, a two-screen film with random reel order, is the first mainstream success of the American underground.
  • Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf, the first American film released with a rating ("SM"–Suggested for Mature Audience).
1967
  • Mike Nichols's The Graduate and Arthur Penn's Bonnie and Clyde garner huge ticket sales by appealing to young anti-establishment audiences.
  • Wavelength, a famous Structural film by Canadian Michael Snow.
  • Spencer Tracy and Katharine Hepburn star in the last of nine films they made together in Stanley Kramer’s Guess Who’s Coming to Dinner.
  • Also in History: Protests over Vietnam reach climax when 35,000 demonstrate outside the Pentagon.
1967-73
  • European art films link social with sexual revolutions: Vilgot Sjöman's I Am Curious–Yellow, Pier Paolo Pasolini's Teorema, Dušan Makavejev's WR: Mysteries of the Organism.
1968
  • Stanley Kubrick's 2001: A Space Odyssey, is a science fiction film of great technical accomplishment and a visionary quality without precedent.
  • Argentinean filmmakers Fernando Solanas and Octavio Getino's Hour of the Furnaces and Cuban director Tomás Gutiérrez Alea's Memories of Underdevelopment, key works of the New Latin American cinema.
  • The Motion Picture Producers of America (MPPA, formerly MPPDA) introduces a new four-point ratings system ranging from "G" to "X" to replace the now defunct Production Code.
  • Student demonstrations in Czechoslovakia, France, Japan, Spain, the United States, and West Germany generate a wave of politically engaged collective filmmaking.
  • Launching of the Journées Cinématographiques de Carthage, an important festival for Arab cinema held biennially in Tunis.
  • Also in History: Assassination of Martin Luther King.
  • Also in History: Tet offensive staggers Vietnam.
  • Vietnam Execution by Eddie Adams (Viet Cong officer killed).
  • Robert Kennedy Moments After He Was Shot by Bill Eppridge.
  • Photograph of Earth from the moon. 
1969
  • Sam Peckinpah's The Wild Bunch and Dennis Hopper's Easy Rider criticise the American myth of individual freedom and appeal to a growing anti-Vietnam War protest movement; John Schlesinger's X-rated Midnight Cowboy wins the Academy Award for Best Picture.
  • Launching of the Pan-African Film and Television Festival (FESPACO) in Ougadougou, Burkina Faso.
  • Also in History: Woodstock Festival.
  • Man’s First Moon Walk by Neil Armstrong. 

Wednesday, 20 September 2017

New Wave Cinematography


The cinematic stylings of French New Wave brought a fresh look to cinema with improvised dialogue, rapid changes of scene, and shots that go beyond the common 180° axis. The camera was used not to mesmerize the audience with elaborate narrative and illusory images, but to play with the expectations of cinema. The techniques used to shock and awe the audience out of submission and were so bold and direct that Jean-Luc Godard has been accused of having contempt for his audience. His stylistic approach can be seen as a desperate struggle against the mainstream cinema of the time, or a degrading attack on the viewer's supposed naivety. Either way, the challenging awareness represented by this movement remains in cinema today. Effects that now seem either trite or commonplace, such as a character stepping out of their role in order to address the audience directly, were radically innovative at the time.

Classic French cinema adhered to the principles of strong narrative, creating what Godard described as an oppressive and deterministic aesthetic of plot. In contrast, New Wave filmmakers made no attempts to suspend the viewer's disbelief; in fact, they took steps to constantly remind the viewer that a film is just a sequence of moving images, no matter how clever the use of light and shadow. The result is a set of oddly disjointed scenes without attempt at unity; or an actor whose character changes from one scene to the next; or sets in which onlookers accidentally make their way onto camera along with extras, who in fact were hired to do just the same.


French New Wave: Key Works




Alphaville: Une étrange aventure de Lemmy Caution (Alphaville: A Strange Adventure of Lemmy Caution) is a 1965 black-and-white French science fiction film directed by Jean-Luc Godard. It stars Eddie Constantine, Anna Karina, Howard Vernon and Akim Tamiroff. The film won the Golden Bear award of the 15th Berlin International Film Festival in 1965.

Alphaville combines the genres of dystopian science fiction and film noir. There are no special effects or elaborate sets; instead, the film was shot in real locations in Paris, the night-time streets of the capital becoming the streets of Alphaville, while modernist glass and concrete buildings (in 1965 they were new and strange architectural designs) represent the city's interiors. The film is set in a futuristic alternative present. The characters refer to twentieth century events; for example, the hero describes himself as a Guadalcanal veteran.

Expatriate American actor Eddie Constantine plays Lemmy Caution, a trenchcoat-wearing secret agent. Constantine had already played this or similar roles in dozens of previous films; the character was originally created by British pulp novelist Peter Cheyney. However, in Alphaville, director Jean-Luc Godard moves Caution away from his usual twentieth century setting, and places him in a futuristic sci-fi dystopia, the technocratic dictatorship of Alphaville.



The 400 Blows (French: Les quatre cents coups) is a 1959 French drama film directed by François Truffaut and starring Jean-Pierre Léaud, Albert Rémy, and Claire Maurier. One of the defining films of the French New Wave, it displays many of the characteristic traits of the movement. Written by Truffaut and Marcel Moussy, the film is about a misunderstood adolescent in Paris who is thought by his parents and teachers to be a troublemaker. Filmed on location in Paris and Honfleur, The 400 Blows received numerous awards and nominations, including the Cannes Film Festival Award for Best Director, the OCIC Award, and a Palme d'Or nomination in 1959.

The film’s most famous shot is the closing freeze-frame, in which the boy is caught with his back to the sea. Simultaneously both sad and defiant, it remains one of the most famous endings in film history.


Jules and Jim (French: Jules et Jim) is a 1962 French film directed by François Truffaut based on Henri-Pierre Roché's 1953 semi-autobiographical novel about his relationship with writer Franz Hessel and his wife, Helen Grund.

One of the seminal products of the French New Wave, Jules and Jim is an inventive encyclopedia of the language of cinema that incorporates newsreel footage, photographic stills, freeze frames, panning shots, wipes, masking, dolly shots, and voiceover narration (by Michel Subor). Truffaut's cinematographer was Raoul Coutard, a frequent collaborator with Jean-Luc Godard, who employed the latest lightweight cameras to create an extremely fluid film style. For example, some of the postwar scenes were shot using cameras mounted on bicycles.

Jeanne Moreau incarnates the style of the Nouvelle Vague actress. The critic Ginette Vincindeau has defined this as, "beautiful, but in a kind of natural way; sexy, but intellectual at the same time, a kind of cerebral sexuality, — this was the hallmark of the nouvelle vague woman." Though she isn't in the film's title Catherine is "the structuring absence. She reconciles two completely opposed ideas of femininity".


Video Editing Structure: Guidance


Introduction:
  • Outline the principles and context of your 'new wave' study
  • What did they oppose/achieve? - techniques/social/break from tradition
Brief summary of the period
  • Historical context
  • What you will be focussing upon - era/directors/films?
Examples
  • Films/Directors/Actor
  • Techniques - more detail
  • Issues - more detail
Impact
  • On audience?
  • On industry?
  • On other 'new waves' ?
Conclusions
  • Summary
  • Implications and legacy
What Makes a Video Essay Great? from Fandor Keyframe on Vimeo.